From maturity to old age: tasks of daily life require a different muscle use in horses

Rebeka Zsoldos, Björn Krüger und Theresia Licka
In: Comparative Exercise Physiology (Juli 2014), 10:2(75-88)
 

Abstract

In vertebrates ageing is characterised by reduced viscoelasticity of the ligamentous and tendineous structures and fibre changes in muscle. Also, some vertebral joint degeneration develops with ageing. The aim of this study was to apply dynamic time warping to compare the temporal characteristics of the surface electromyography (sEMG) data and to illustrate the differences in the pattern of muscle use during tasks of daily life in old and mature horses. In vivo kinematics (24 skin markers) and sEMG measurements of neck extensors and flexors were taken in five mature horses (aged 10±2 years, half of mean life expectancy) and five old horses (aged 25±5 years, older than the mean life expectancy). All horses had the same level of activity in the 12 months prior to the measurement. Tasks measured were neck flexion and neck extension as well as neutral neck position. Muscle activation, minimum and maximum muscle activation were collected. Quartiles of muscle activity based on the maximum observed activity of each muscle were calculated to document the relative increase of activity level during the task. Kinematics as well as overall muscle activity patterns were similar across horses and age groups. However, in the neutral position old horses showed increased extensor activity compared to mature horses, indicating that old equine muscle requires more activity to counteract gravity. Dynamic time warping specified optimal temporal alignments of time series, and different temporal performances were identified. The age groups differed during the flexion task, while neck extension and neutral neck position were more similar. The results of this study show that even in the second half of life and in the absence of muscle disuse the muscular strategy employed by horses continues to be adapted.

Stichwörter: ageing, dynamic time warping, movement solution, muscle activity, surface electromyography

Bilder

Bibtex

@ARTICLE{zsoldos2014a,
    author = {Zsoldos, Rebeka and Kr{\"u}ger, Bj{\"o}rn and Licka, Theresia},
     pages = {75--88},
     title = {From maturity to old age: tasks of daily life require a different muscle use in horses},
   journal = {Comparative Exercise Physiology},
    volume = {10},
    number = {2},
      year = {2014},
     month = jul,
  keywords = {ageing, dynamic time warping, movement solution, muscle activity, surface electromyography},
  abstract = {In vertebrates ageing is characterised by reduced viscoelasticity of the ligamentous and tendineous
              structures and fibre changes in muscle. Also, some vertebral joint degeneration develops with
              ageing. The aim of this study was to apply dynamic time warping to compare the temporal
              characteristics of the surface electromyography (sEMG) data and to illustrate the differences in the
              pattern of muscle use during tasks of daily life in old and mature horses. In vivo kinematics (24
              skin markers) and sEMG measurements of neck extensors and flexors were taken in five mature horses
              (aged 10±2 years, half of mean life expectancy) and five old horses (aged 25±5 years, older than
              the mean life expectancy). All horses had the same level of activity in the 12 months prior to the
              measurement. Tasks measured were neck flexion and neck extension as well as neutral neck position.
              Muscle activation, minimum and maximum muscle activation were collected. Quartiles of muscle
              activity based on the maximum observed activity of each muscle were calculated to document the
              relative increase of activity level during the task. Kinematics as well as overall muscle activity
              patterns were similar across horses and age groups. However, in the neutral position old horses
              showed increased extensor activity compared to mature horses, indicating that old equine muscle
              requires more activity to counteract gravity. Dynamic time warping specified optimal temporal
              alignments of time series, and different temporal performances were identified. The age groups
              differed during the flexion task, while neck extension and neutral neck position were more similar.
              The results of this study show that even in the second half of life and in the absence of muscle
              disuse the muscular strategy employed by horses continues to be adapted.},
      issn = {1755-2540 (Print) 1755-2559 (Onl},
       url = {http://wageningenacademic.metapress.com/content/a016363755605421/},
       doi = {10.3920/CEP140001}
}