Long term consistency and locationspecificity of equine gluteus medius muscleactivity during locomotion on the treadmill

Rebeka Zsoldos, Anna Vögele, Björn Krüger, Ulrike Schröder, Andreas Weber und Theresia Licka
In: BMC Veterinary Research (Apr. 2018), 14:126(1-10)
 

Abstract

Background: The equine m. gluteus medius (GM) is the largest muscle of the horse, its main movement function is the extension of the hip joint. The objective of the present study was to measure equine GM activity in three adjacent locations on GM during walk and trot on a treadmill, in order to document potential differences. Fourteen Haflinger mares were measured using surface electromyography and kinematic markers to identify the motion cycles on three occasions over 16 weeks. The electrodes were placed on left and right gluteus medius muscle over the middle of its widest part and 5 cm lateral and medial of it. For data processing, electrical activity was normalised to its maximum value and timing was normalised to the motion cycle. A Gaussian distribution approach was used to determine up to 10 modes of focussed activity, and results were analysed separately for stance and swing phase of the ipsilateral hindlimb. Results: Fair reliability was found for mean mode values (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.66) and good reliability was found for mean mode locations (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.71) over the three data collection days. The magnitude of muscle activity identified as mean mode value was much larger at trot than at walk, and mean mode value was significantly different between stance phases of walk and trot for all electrode positions (p < 0.01). The pattern of muscle activity identified as mean mode location was significantly different for walk and trot at all electrode positions, both during stance and swing phases (p < 0.001). This indicates the different timing pattern between the gaits. Results of the three electrode positions on the same muscle during each gait were not significantly different when comparing the same measurement. Conclusions: The middle of the equine GM does not show any indication of functional differentiation during walk and trot on a treadmill; this might be due to lack of segmentation as such, or due to lack of need for segmented use for these very basic main tasks of the muscle. The reliability of the sEMG measurements over several weeks was fair to good, an indication for the robustness of the methodology.

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Bibtex

@ARTICLE{Zsoldos2018,
    author = {Zsoldos, Rebeka and V{\"o}gele, Anna and Kr{\"u}ger, Bj{\"o}rn and Schr{\"o}der, Ulrike and Weber, Andreas and
              Licka, Theresia},
     pages = {1--10},
     title = {Long term consistency and locationspecificity of equine gluteus medius muscleactivity during
              locomotion on the treadmill},
   journal = {BMC Veterinary Research},
    volume = {14},
    number = {126},
      year = {2018},
     month = apr,
  abstract = {Background: The equine m. gluteus medius (GM) is the largest muscle of the horse, its main movement
              function is the extension of the hip joint. The objective of the present study was to measure equine
              GM activity in three adjacent locations on GM during walk and trot on a treadmill, in order to
              document potential differences. Fourteen Haflinger mares were measured using surface
              electromyography and kinematic markers to identify the motion cycles on three occasions over 16
              weeks. The electrodes were placed on left and right gluteus medius muscle over the middle of its
              widest part and 5 cm lateral and medial of it. For data processing, electrical activity was
              normalised to its maximum value and timing was normalised to the motion cycle. A Gaussian
              distribution approach was used to determine up to 10 modes of focussed activity, and results were
              analysed separately for stance and swing phase of the ipsilateral
              hindlimb.
              Results: Fair reliability was found for mean mode values (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.66) and good
              reliability was found for mean mode locations (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.71) over the three data
              collection days. The magnitude of muscle activity identified as mean mode value was much larger at
              trot than at walk, and mean mode value was significantly different between stance phases of walk and
              trot for all electrode positions (p < 0.01). The pattern of muscle activity identified as mean mode
              location was significantly different for walk and trot at all electrode positions, both during
              stance and swing phases (p < 0.001). This indicates the different timing pattern between the gaits.
              Results of the three electrode positions on the same muscle during each gait were not significantly
              different when comparing the same  measurement.
              Conclusions: The middle of the equine GM does not show any indication of functional differentiation
              during walk and trot on a treadmill; this might be due to lack of segmentation as such, or due to
              lack of need for segmented use for these very basic main tasks of the muscle. The reliability of the
              sEMG measurements over several weeks was fair to good, an indication for the robustness of the
              methodology.},
       doi = {10.1186/s12917-018-1443-y}
}